to others. The main reason being that every person has a different way of observing things, which might involve personal bias, likes and dislikes which will not give the desired … Although, it is too time-consuming and exhausting consequently the incumbent may start complaining that he has to spend more time in making entries in his diary than in doing his job. Under this method, a group of representative job incumbents are selected for extensive interview usually outside of the actual job situation. Job analysis data from individual and group interviews with employees are often supplemented by information from supervisors of employees whose jobs are to be analysed. Besides being slow and expensive this method also interferes with normal work operations. These are- Direct Observation; Work Method Analysis, including time and motion studies and micro-motion analysis; and critical incident method. The job incumbents are given a diary and asked to write a brief account of their job activities they performed at the end of every day. needs special skill. It involves analysis of job by employee himself/herself. Personal interviews may be held by the employees and answers to the relevant questions may be recorded. Records – Job analyst collects the information from the record of the facts regarding job and job holders maintained by the personnel department. Accordingly, quantitative data collection methods are based on numbers and mathematical calculations. After completion, the questionnaire are handed over to supervisors. (d) PAQ is also used for the fixation of pay levels. A number of important factor to be considered in each job are identified. In analysing jobs, the analysts use manuals/or materials of reference including quality manual, human resource manual, procedures, instruction, forms, job description. In this method a questionnaire is prepared to get the job information and it is circulated among all job holders. Thomas E. Hitten was the first to originate factor comparison method of job evaluation. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge The understanding of the job may also be gained through interviewing both the supervisor and the employee as either an individual or a group setting. It is good method used widely for data collection. ii. This method has the following characteristics: (i) Each employee is given a diary to keep records of his daily activities. The most reliable and practical technique for obtaining the information in relation to the job is through the direct observation of the work performed coupled with the discussion with the supervisor of the job. It may not be suitable for mental, analytical and technical jobs. It requires the job holders to record in details their activities on a daily basis. 3. (v) The job holder should be motivated to speak more. Qualitative performance evaluations focus on the qualities of job performance that can be observed but not measured, such as communication skills or teamwork. For instance, regression analysis can be used to determine how interest ratesInterest RateAn interest rate refers to the amount charged by a lender to a borrower for any form of debt given, generally expressed as a percentage of the principal. The interview of the candidates or interviewees may be carried out either individually or in a group to save time. iv. In this method, the respondents have to respond on the importance of each item to the position. (vii) An average job holder should be selected for interview. Open ended (unstructured) questionnaire is very simple that asks the employees to describe something in respect of their job related duties, responsibilities etc. It contains 194 items, each of which represents an important component of the job. Interview Method: It involves discussions between job analysis and job occupants or experts. iii. Job information is collected through interview. The job analyst gets an actual feel of job as well as the physical, environmental and social demands of the job. The method of diary is considered to be a very useful tool to analyse jobs. Everything you need to know about the job analysis methods. Interview method is very much expensive. Selecting an appropriate job analysis method depends on the structure of the organization, hierarchical levels, nature of job and responsibilities and duties involved in it. 2. It requires much time to complete the information collection exercise especially, in cases when employees occasionally need to perform some work. Questionnaires cover all aspects of a topic. An experienced and expert analyst combines interviewing and on-the-job observation to provide a more accurate analysis than is usually secured by the use of either one of the methods. People 3. So, it is a speedy and excellent way for gathering information at a shorter period of time. The information will not be useful if the best job holder is contacted. 1. But this method is relatively time consuming and costly. Observance of situation, conditions under which an employee works, iii. Moreover, the questions of how many? Respondents may not be 100 percent truthful with their answers. Typically, all the methods focus on collecting the basic job-related information but when used in combination may bring out the hidden or overlooked information and prove to be great tools for creating a perfect job-candidate fit. The working environment, machines, tools used, supervision needed. This method is very much popular to gather information concerning job related duties and responsibilities of employees. Position Analysis Questionnaire – PAQ is a very structured job analysis questionnaire filled by a job analyst himself. Cost wise this method is cheap for collection of information. They prepare a very accurate list in which the various mental qualities required for the job are properly and reliably classified. The job analyst goes through the records and notes the relevant aspects of job details. In this method, the mental peculiarities of an individual successful in a particular kind of job are examined, and a list of these peculiarities is compiled. Sometimes, it is better to apply quantitative methods while in other cases it is preferable to apply qualitative methods. Others may be influenced to participate based on the subject of the questionnaire. In this method a questionnaire is prepared which consist of questions/statements pertaining to job and the employees. This method is effective for job analysis when jobs are very simple and are easy to perform. SMEs will implement sessions of brainstorming to discover elements of jobs. This method is particularly suitable for analyzing manual and unskilled jobs. Examining Manuals/Reference Materials Method: The job incumbents are given a diary and asked to write a brief account of their job activities they performed at the end of every day. The employee may not remember the job activities at the end of work shift when he records in the diary. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. Employees may not give actual information / data to job analyst as they feel these data will be used for determining their pay rates and fringe benefits. It helps in identifying the key responsibility areas (KRAs) for a position and then setting the goals or objectives for the appraisal period. 6. This list is transcribed in a graph. Some of the important job analysis methods are given below: It is a job analysis technique in which employees are directly watched or films of workers on the job are reviewed and the data regarding the job collected. Generally, employees avoid to submit information in writing that may be due to their inability to express or due to their unwillingness to respond to the questions mentioned in the questionnaire. (iii) Job analyst must take an interest in job holder and his work. Through well designed and effective interview job analyst may come to know some new area of activities / behaviour which may help him to arrive at some conclusion. It is done like the individual interview method but more people are interviewed simultaneously. Today our world is more complicated and it is difficult to understand what people think and perceive. Quantitative Analysis: In the quantitative analysis the data is analyzed through statistical means. But it is often a very time consuming the reason is questionnaires are sent by mail. So job performance information becomes correct and accurate. This allows you to test various hypotheses and to predict future outcomes based on probability theory. It creates an atmosphere for the interviewees to open up their minds and give information, share ideas, opinions, positive and negative aspects of the job. Many questions can be raised, such as working purposes, key roles and responsibilities, organization; relationships; decision-making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions. In this method, the job is analyzed and necessary information regarding the job is collected by asking the employees some subjective questions in the form of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ objective type questions. Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. Job inventories can either be Task/Job Oriented or Qualifications/Worker oriented. The another method of collecting information for job analysis is through study and observation of the job people do. Data … The job holder is asked to put a tick mark against his/her choice. The idea of issuing questionnaires is to elicit the necessary information from the job holders so that any error may first be discussed with the employee and after due corrections may be submitted to the job analyst. Things 1. In this method, the employee describe their daily work activities in a diary or log. In this method the job analyst actually performs the job in question and thus receives 1st hand experiences of contextual factors on the job including physical hazards, social demands, and emotional pressures mental requirements. The implications for job analysis basically requires all section, promotion, and compensation decisions are based on job criteria or subject standards. This style is somehow similar to the method of critical incident technique. The analyst observes the incumbent as he performs his work and questions him to get the required data. In large organizations it is difficult to use, to collect information. ii. As with any sort of research, bias can be an issue. Sometimes quantitative data is … This method though too expensive and time-consuming helps in getting a complete scenario of the job. Here are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered. (iii) Job diary needs to be maintained for a long period so that all activities are covered. Information-processing 1. Indeed, a task inventory lists all discrete activities which create a certain job or certain company. | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Job analysis provides the necessary inputs for a number of HR activities like recruitment, selection, job design, estimating job worth, training, and appraisal. You’ll have to work with the technique a bit before you become comfortable with it, but once you get it, you’ll be sorting through mountains of qualitative data in no time. The supervisors utilize this method to collect information. The limitation is that every person has his own way of observing things. The interaction with the members during the interview adds insight and details that the analyst might not get from individual job holders. (b) It involves a complicated analysis on the part of job analyst. Motion Study Method. Quantitative vs. qualitative data: Methods of analysis; What are the advantages and disadvantages of quantitative vs. qualitative data? This method has some limitations as it fairly good for simple jobs however, in case of complex jobs advance training of the analyst becomes mandatory. This method utilizes senior job holders and supervisors with extensive knowledge of the job. Under this method, the job analyst actually performs the job himself. ii. (iv) He must concentrate on the job and not on the HR matters. These are structured questionnaires that require a respondent to check or rate behaviour and/or worker character necessary to a particular job or occupation. Individual interviews with individual employee. It examines three fundamental components of ‘data, people, and things’. It includes skills, knowledge, capacities, values, interests, personalities. The method is not free from limitations. (c) The results of PAQ can be used to compare one job with the other. Here the job analyst observes the work and worker while the worker is involved with the work. Face to face interviews are an effective way to collect job information, because the job holders are most familiar with the job. Hence the techniques focus on estimating the presence of the components. This method is used frequently for government jobs. Equipment Operation 5. iii. Such a study of speed and time helps in job analysis and classification of the workers. In short, job analysis is a recording of all the activities involved in a job and the skill and knowledge requirements of the performer of the job. Job analyst gets thorough idea regarding the jobs employees perform. Quantitative and Qualitative Methods of Job Analysis | Job Analysis Methods. Quantitative presents reality … In this method, the job is actually performed by the job analyst for obtaining first-hand experience in relation to the actual tastes, physical and social demand, and the working environment of the job. Reference Materials Method 18. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. vi. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! iii. No job analysis is essential in this method there is a possibility of wrong classification for jobs. This approach of job analysis is worker oriented. 2. Job analysis, is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information about a specific job, including the tasks involved, the knowledge and skill set required to perform the job, the responsibilities attached to the job and the abilities required to perform the job successfully. 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